Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 329

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 329



                                               

Onomasticon (Eusebius)

The Onomasticon compiled by Eusebius of Caesarea is a directory of place names, or "gazetteer", a primary source that provides historical geographers with a contemporary knowledge of early 4th-century Palestine and Transjordan. It sits uneasily b ...

                                               

Ostracon

An ostracon is a piece of pottery, usually broken off from a vase or other earthenware vessel. In an archaeological or epigraphical context, ostraca refer to sherds or even small pieces of stone that have writing scratched into them. Usually thes ...

                                               

Palaeography

Palaeography or paleography is the study of ancient and historical handwriting. Included in the discipline is the practice of deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts, and the cultural context of writing, including the methods with ...

                                               

Palimpsest

In textual studies, a palimpsest is a manuscript page, either from a scroll or a book, from which the text has been scraped or washed off so that the page can be reused for another document. Pergamene was made of lamb, calf, or goat kid skin and ...

                                               

Panizzi Lectures

The Panizzi Lectures are a series of annual lectures given at the British Library by "eminent scholars of the book" and named after the librarian Anthony Panizzi. They are considered one of the major British bibliographical lecture series alongsi ...

                                               

Papal diplomatics

Papal diplomatics is the scholarly and critical study of the authentic documents of the Papacy, largely to distinguish them from spurious documents. The study emerges in the Middle Ages and has been further refined in the centuries since.

                                               

Papyrology

Papyrology is the study of ancient literature, correspondence, legal archives, etc., as preserved in manuscripts written on papyrus, the most common form of writing material in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Papyrology incl ...

                                               

Papyrus

Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge. Papyrus can also refer to a document written on sheets of such mat ...

                                               

Parchment

Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals - primarily sheep, calves, and goats. It has been used as a writing medium for over two millennia. Vellum is a finer quality parchment made from the skins of y ...

                                               

Plica (sigillography)

Plica is a term used in sigillography and related archival contexts for a reinforcement of the lower edge of a charter or deed, produced by folding up the bottom of the sheet of parchment to achieve a double thickness. The purpose of the fold is ...

                                               

Printing

Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabonidus. The earliest k ...

                                               

Printing press

A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium, thereby transferring the ink. It marked a dramatic improvement on earlier printing methods in which the cloth, paper or other medium wa ...

                                               

Prosopographia Imperii Romani

The Prosopographia Imperii Romani, abbreviated PIR, is a collective historical work to establish the prosopography of high-profile people from the Roman empire. The time period covered extends from the Battle of Actium in 31 BC to the reign of Di ...

                                               

Recension

Recension is the practice of editing or revising a text based on critical analysis. When referring to manuscripts, this may be a revision by another author. The term is derived from Latin recensio. In textual criticism, particularly Biblical scho ...

                                               

Reception of Enoch in antiquity

The Book of Enoch is an ancient Jewish religious work, ascribed by tradition and internal attestation to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah. Enoch holds material unique to it, such as the origins of supernatural demons and giants, why some ange ...

                                               

Revision (writing)

Revision: In this step, focus on your ideas and organization. When revising your work, you may rearrange paragraphs and sentences. You may add or take out information. You will make sure that your ideas are clear to your audience.Revision follows ...

                                               

Roman graffiti

In archaeological terms, graffiti is a mark, image or writing scratched or engraved into a surface. There have been numerous examples found on sites of the Roman Empire, including taverns and houses, as well as on pottery of the time. In many cas ...

                                               

Rubrication

Rubrication was one of several steps in the medieval process of manuscript making. Practitioners of rubrication, so-called rubricators or rubrishers, were specialized scribes who received text from the manuscripts original scribe and supplemented ...

                                               

Sandars Lectures

The Sandars Readership in Bibliography is an annual lecture series given at Cambridge University. Instituted in 1895 at the behest of Mr Samuel Sandars of Trinity College, who left a £2000 bequest to the University, the series has continued down ...

                                               

Scribal abbreviation

Scribal abbreviations or sigla are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in various languages, including Latin, Greek, Old English and Old Norse. In modern manuscript editing "sigla" are the symbols used to indicate the s ...

                                               

Scribe

A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist, especially one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of automatic printing. The profession of the scribe is, previously widespread across cultures, lost most of its prominen ...

                                               

Scriptorium

Scriptorium), literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts commonly handled by monastic scribes. However, lay scribes and ill ...

                                               

Scroll

A scroll is usually divided up into pages, which are sometimes separate sheets of papyrus or parchment glued together at the edges, or may be marked divisions of a continuous roll of writing material. The scroll is usually unrolled so that one pa ...

                                               

Shakespeare's editors

Shakespeares editors were essential in the development of the modern practice of producing printed books and the evolution of textual criticism. The 17th-century folio collections of the plays of William Shakespeare did not have editors in the mo ...

                                               

Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum

Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum is an annual survey collecting the content of and studies on Greek inscriptions published in a single year. New inscriptions have full Greek text and critical apparatus, and studies of older inscriptions have bri ...

                                               

G. Thomas Tanselle

G. Thomas Tanselle is an American textual critic, bibliographer, and book collector, especially known for his work on Herman Melville. He was Vice-President, John Simon Guggenheim Foundation, 1978-2006.

                                               

Targum Onkelos

Targum Onkelos, תרגום אונקלוס, is the Jewish Aramaic targum of the Torah, accepted as an authoritative translated text of the Five Books of Moses and thought to have been written in the early 2nd-century CE.

                                               

Text Creation Partnership

The Text Creation Partnership is a not-for-profit organization based in the library of the University of Michigan since 2000. Its purpose is to produce large-scale full-text electronic resources on behalf of both member institutions and scholarly ...

                                               

Text Encoding Initiative

The Text Encoding Initiative is a text-centric community of practice in the academic field of digital humanities, operating continuously since the 1980s. The community currently runs a mailing list, meetings and conference series, and maintains a ...

                                               

Textual criticism

Textual criticism is a branch of textual scholarship, Philology and literary criticism related to the identification of text variants, or different versions, either manuscript or printed books. Such texts can vary in time from a first writing cun ...

                                               

Constantin von Tischendorf

Lobegott Friedrich Constantin Tischendorf was a world-leading biblical scholar in his time. In 1844 he discovered the worlds oldest and most complete Bible, which has been dated to around the mid-4th century. This Bible is called Codex Sinaiticus ...

                                               

Typesetting

Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical types or the digital equivalents. Stored letters and other symbols are retrieved and ordered according to a languages orthography for visual display. Typesetting requires one o ...

                                               

Urtext edition

An urtext edition of a work of classical music is a printed version intended to reproduce the original intention of the composer as exactly as possible, without any added or changed material. Other kinds of editions distinct from urtext are facsi ...

                                               

Variorum

A variorum, short for cum notis variorum, is a work that collates all known variants of a text. It is a work of textual criticism, whereby all variations and emendations are set side by side so that a reader can track how textual decisions have b ...

                                               

Petros Vassiliadis

Petros Vassiliadis is a Greek biblical scholar and Professor Emeritus of the Department of Theology of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, president of the Center of Ecumenical, Missiological and Environmental Studies" Metropolitan Pantelei ...

                                               

Voyant Tools

Voyant Tools is an open-source, web-based application for performing text analysis. It supports scholarly reading and interpretation of texts or corpus, particularly by scholars in the digital humanities, but also by students and the general publ ...

                                               

Johann Jakob Wettstein

Wettstein rendered service to textual criticism by his collection of various readings and his methodical account of the manuscripts and other sources. Through his laborious study of Codex Alexandrinus, he believed he found misinterpretations or c ...

                                               

Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff

Enno Friedrich Wichard Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff was a German classical philologist. Wilamowitz, as he is known in scholarly circles, was a renowned authority on Ancient Greece and its literature.

                                               

Wilbour Papyrus

The Wilbour Papyrus is a papyrus purchased by the New York journalist Charles Edwin Wilbour from a farmer when he visited the island of Elephantine near Aswan in 1893. There he purchased seventeen papyri from a local farmer. He did not realize th ...

                                               

Woodblock printing

Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest sur ...

                                               

Writing material

Writing material refers to the materials that provide the surfaces on which humans use writing instruments to inscribe writings. The same materials can also be used for symbolic or representational drawings. Building material on which writings or ...

                                               

William Zeitlin

William Zeitlin was a Russian scholar and bibliographer born at Homel, government of Moghilef, about the middle of the 19th century. He is known especially as the author of Kiryat Sefer, or Bibliotheca Hebraica Post-Mendelssohniana, a bibliograph ...

                                               

Zenodotus

Zenodotus was a Greek grammarian, literary critic, Homeric scholar, and the first librarian of the Library of Alexandria. A native of Ephesus and a pupil of Philitas of Cos, he lived during the reigns of the first two Ptolemies, and was at the he ...

                                               

List of departments of linguistics

                                               

List of schools for quantitative psychology

This is a nonexhaustive list of schools that offer degrees in quantitative psychology or related fields such as psychometrics or research methodology. Programs are typically offered in departments of psychology, educational psychology, or human d ...

                                               

Heavy industry

Heavy industry is an industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities ; or complex or numerous processes. Because of those factors, heavy industry involves higher capita ...

                                               

Light industry

Light industry is industries that usually are less capital-intensive than heavy industry and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented, as it typically produces smaller consumer goods. Most light industry products are produced for end user ...

                                               

Activism industry

                                               

Agricultural machinery industry

The agricultural machinery industry or agricultural engineering industry is the part of the industry, that produces and maintain tractors, agricultural machinery and agricultural implements. This branch is considered to be part of the machinery i ...

                                               

Arms industry

The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry which manufactures and sells weapons and military technology, and is a major component of the Military–industrial complex. It consists of a commercial i ...

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